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There are many barriers erected by cultural differences, especially between nurses and their patients: Could you explain an example of these barriers created by cultural differences?
Cultural competence “starts from the consciousness of the professional, and it considers four phases in mutual interaction: self-awareness, cultural identity, Attachment to inheritance and family assets, ethnocentrism” (Purnell and Fenkl, 2019). Instead, Norouzinia (2015) define “Communication, as a key element in providing high-quality health care services, leads to patient satisfaction and health”, hence effective communication with patients and health care workers is a key process in safe and quality health care (Schyve, 2007).
On the other hand, Fleischer (2009) stated that “Communication is a multi-dimensional, multi-factorial phenomenon and a dynamic, complex process, closely related to the environment in which an individual’s experiences are shared since the time of Florence Nightingale in 19th century until today, specialists and nurses have paid a great deal of attention to communication and interaction in nursing”.
There are several barriers that affect cultural competences, but I want to concentrate on the one related to our nursing profession, thus nurses with lack of knowledge on how to handle cultural diversity or without cultural sensitivity are more likely to prejudices and to address cultural beliefs unproperly.
The incorporation of courses of cultural competency on the nursing curricula and healthcare facilities have been useful to fight with the cultural dilemma. Gradellini et al. (2021) states that university nursing courses (Undergraduate/Postgraduate) need to educate and prepare future professionals, with skills to face challenges and complexity generated by cultural diversity”; with the goal to promote competence and cultural sensitivity through different teaching strategies (Bentley and Ellison, 2007). “University nursing education must adapt culturally competent curricula” (Gradellini et al., 2021) so the nurse can be prepared to deliver a culturally competent care.
Nurses are in constant challenges in today’s healthcare environment to provide culturally competent care to a diverse patient population (Hart et al., 2013). One challenge in Houston, TX, the city where I work is the language barrier due to the considerable number of Hispanic populations causing communication barrier between patients and health care provider, requiring interpreter but, some patients may feel uncomfortable as their confidentiality is shared with other person. “Potential solutions exist for ethical dilemmas and challenges commonly experienced when working with interpreters “ (Clarke et al., 2019).
Finally, nurse professionals should provide culturally competent care to addressing cultural beliefs properly. “Improvement of communication between patients and providers in relation to health disparity consists of cultural competency and communication skills” (Yeo S, 2004).
REFERENCES
Bentley, R., & Ellison, K. J. (2007). Increasing cultural competence in nursing through international service-learning experiences. Nurse educator, 32(5), 207–211. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.NNE.0000289385.14007.b4
Clarke, S. K., Jaffe, J., & Mutch, R. (2019). Overcoming Communication Barriers in Refugee Health Care. Pediatric clinics of North America, 66(3), 669–686. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcl.2019.02.012
Fleischer, S., Berg, A., Zimmermann, M. et al. Nurse-patient interaction and communication: A systematic literature review. J Public Health 17, 339–353 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10389-008-0238-1
Gradellini, C., Gómez-Cantarino, S., Dominguez-Isabel, P., Molina-Gallego, B., Mecugni, D., & Ugarte-Gurrutxaga, M. I. (2021). Cultural Competence and Cultural Sensitivity Education in University Nursing Courses. A Scoping Review. Frontiers in psychology, 12, 682920. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.682920
Hart, Patricia & Mareno, Nicole. (2013). Cultural Challenges and Barriers Through the Voices of Nurses. Journal of clinical nursing. 23. 10.1111/jocn.12500.
Norouzinia, R., Aghabarari, M., Shiri, M., Karimi, M., & Samami, E. (2015). Communication Barriers Perceived by Nurses and Patients. Global journal of health science, 8(6), 65–74. https://doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v8n6p65
Purnell L. D., Fenkl E. A. (2019). “Transcultural diversity and health care,” in Handbook for culturally Competent Care (Cham: Springer International Publishing;), 1–6.
Schyve PM. Language differences as a barrier to quality and safety in health care: the Joint Commission perspective. J Gen Intern Med. 2007;22(Suppl 2):360–361.
Yeo S. (2004). Language barriers and access to care. Annual review of nursing research, 22, 59–73.
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